SHNV's Supporters for Apr. 2012:
Brock Townsend
Faithful Southron, THANK YOU!!

Southern Heritage <br>News and Views: May 2011

Friday, May 27, 2011

York County perpetual "Virginia State Flag Day" begins in April 2012


Here is a new annual event, let's turn it into a statewide tradition.

Please thank Chairman Hrichak!

God Bless
Billy Bearden
790 Harrison Road
Carrollton Ga 30117
678 340 9612

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Memorial Day Remembrance of Last Confederate Widow

By Calvin E. Johnson, Jr., Speaker, Writer, Author of book “When American Stood for God, Family and Country” and member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans

On Monday May 30th, Memorial Day, let’s remember the men and women who sacrificed all to keep our nation free and Mrs. Alberta Martin, last Confederate Widow, who died on Memorial Day.

The nation lost an historic lady in 2004. Mrs. Alberta Martin, the last known widow of a Confederate soldier, passed away on Memorial Day 2004. She was 97 and a living link to history of which most people know little or nothing.

Mrs. Martin was born on December 4, 1906, at Dannely’s Crossroads, Coffee County, Alabama. The small country intersection has changed little since her birth.

“Miss Alberta” was born into a sharecropper’s family. They went wherever there was work for planters and pickers. She learned the hard work of picking cotton at a young age.

Miss Alberta Martin married W.J. Martin in 1927. Martin was 82 and Alberta was 21. He had been a Confederate soldier over sixty years before they married.

In July of 1997 Mrs. Martin made a pleasant trip to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania to a gathering of descendants of Confederate and Union soldiers. There, Mrs. Martin met Mrs. Daisy Anderson who was the last widow of a Black Union soldier. The two ladies had a good conversation at the historic Dobbs House. Mrs. Anderson passed away in 1998.

She was the widow of Private Robert Ball Anderson who served in the 125th United States Colored Troops.

The last Union widow, Mrs. Gertrude Janeway, died on January 2003.

Mrs. Martin spent much time with the Sons of Confederate Veterans and she believed in flying the Confederate Battle Flag “Cross of Saint Andrew.” In 2000 she participated in a rally in Columbia, South Carolina with 20,000 friends to support the flag which flew on the state capitol. Though in a wheel chair, Miss Martin held her Southern flag and proudly waved it.

In 1996, Miss Alberta was escorted to the National Convention of the Sons of Confederate Veterans in Richmond, Virginia for their 100th birthday. As she entered the meeting hall, everyone came to their feet and began singing “Dixie” to her honor.

People tried to hold back the tears of memory as they laid this Southern lady to rest in Alabama. She is now with Jesus, her family and General Robert E. Lee. She had entered the gates of Heaven, she is home. Happy Memorial Day, Lest We Forget!


Lane-Armistead Camp SCV/Mathews Little League

Civil War Sesquicentennial Commemoration/Fundraiser

Piankatank Ruritan Club

June 11-12, 2011

The Lane-Armistead Camp #1772 of the Sons of Confederate Veterans in collaboration with the Mathews Little League are promoting a day long Civil War learning experience focusing on Mathews County, Virginia while raising badly needed funds for the Little League. This is intended to offer a unique and fresh approach to the War by honoring all men who served, both North and South, while also focusing on the future by giving financial support to our Little League which provides physical fitness and character building opportunities for all of our children. We also seek to highlight those whose role is usually neglected such as the children, women, and African–Americans.

The event will offer many new and exciting displays such as never before published images of children, period games, contemporary children’s art, music, rifle-making, artillery demonstrations, re-enactors, living history interpreters, Mathews’ items and artifacts as well as new authors and book signings. Come and experience the sights and sounds of life 150 years ago. Bring your artifacts, papers or ancestors’ names and learn more about them and help preserve our history. Talk to Captain Sally Tompkins - the only female commissioned officer in the Confederate States Army; James Gardner, USCT, Medal of Honor recipient; Major John Pelletier, Regimental Surgeon, CSA; Thomas Chester, free man of color and reporter, Philadelphia Press; or simply, “Spinster Annie” citizen.

The day will finish with an Oyster Roast and BBQ served by the Mathews Little League starting at 4:30 and for those willing to wait until dark, the roar and thunder of firing cannons belching flaming fireworks from their muzzles.

Sunday will also offer an exciting and somewhat unique experience when the public is invited to attend a period church service officiated by Chaplain Alan Farley of Appomattox. Coffee and light refreshments will be provided by the United Daughters of the Confederacy.

Remember, all proceeds go to support our children through the wonderful efforts of the Mathews Little League. This will be the one sesquicentennial event that you do not want to miss.

Thursday, May 19, 2011


By Bob Hurst

During the War for Southern Independence, that great conflict that was waged from 1861 to 1865, there were in the Confederate Army a total of approximately 1,050,000 service members. Of these million plus individuals there were roughly 3000 who were commissioned officers. Of these 3000 officers there was exactly one who was female and her story is absolutely remarkable.

Her name was Sally Louisa Tompkins and she was born on November 11, 1833 at "Poplar Grove" in Mathews County, Virginia to a family of wealth. Her father, Colonel Christopher Tompkins, was a veteran of the American Revolutionary War who accumulated a large fortune. He died when Sally was only five years old and left great wealth to Sally and her mother. The two moved to Richmond rather than continuing to live in the rural and isolated environment of Poplar Grove. There they were able to fit nicely into the society of Richmond and were familiar with many of the prominent people of the city.

The Tompkins were still living in Richmond when war broke out between the North and the South at the Battle of First Manassas on July 21, 1861.Very few on either side thought the fighting would be as severe as it proved to be and the hospitals in Richmond were totally unprepared for the large number of Confederate wounded that were brought into the city, primarily by rail. President Jefferson Davis made an appeal to the citizens of Richmond to absorb this multitude of injured by opening their homes to the soldiers and establishing private hospitals.

Sally Tompkins was a person of great kindness and wanted to help with the wounded. She also had some nurse's training. She approached Judge John Robertson, a prominent member of the Richmond community, and appealed to him to allow her to convert a large home that he owned in the downtown area into a private hospital. Sally was very persuasive and the large structure became Robertson Hospital.

The hospital opened on August 1, 1861 with Sally and a staff of six to care for the wounded. Some supplies for the hospital were supplied by the Confederate government but primary funding came from the inheritance that Sally had received from her father.

At first there was some opposition to Sally, her staff and the hospital since the Confederate armies discouraged women from serving as nurses. The prevailing attitude was that men did not want refined Southern ladies exposed to the horrors of war by having to treat the mutilated, sick and dying soldiers in military hospitals. This soon changed and many of the wounded began to request care from Sally, or "the little lady with the milk-white hands" as she came to be called.

After an assessment soon after the establishment of these private hospitals, the Confederate government decided that all hospitals treating wounded soldiers should be put under the control of the Confederate Medical Department. The Confederate Congress passed legislation to this effect and President Davis issued an order making it official policy. This would result in the closing of the private hospitals.

Sally Tompkins went straight to Jefferson Davis to argue her case for leaving her hospital open while other private facilities were being closed down. To support her appeal, she supplied to President Davis numbers from her hospital showing the amazing rate of treatment successes for her hospital compared to others.

Jefferson Davis realized the validity of her argument but he was also aware that the new regulations required all military hospitals be run by military personnel. While discussing this with Sally, the president had to have a brief meeting with Confederate diplomat James Mason who was about to leave for Europe.

As Mason left, Davis turned to Sally and said that Mason had given him an idea concerning how to solve the dilemma of the hospital. Jefferson Davis then appointed Sally Tompkins to the rank of captain of cavalry (unassigned) effective September 8, 1861.

Sally could continue to run her hospital as she was now official military personnel. She also became "Captain Sally", the only woman to hold a commission in the Confederate Army. From that time forward until she died, townspeople and everyone else who came in contact with Sally addressed her as "Captain Sally".

Robertson Hospital stayed in operation until June of 1865, after the War had ended in Virginia. During its existence the hospital treated a total of 1333 wounded Confederate soldiers. Of these, only 73 died. This gave the hospital an astonishing 94.5% survival rate. Because of the good reputation of the hospital, the most severely injured soldiers were assigned to Robertson Hospital making this feat all the more remarkable. In fact, a higher percentage of patients treated there returned to service than from any other Confederate medical facility or Union military hospital. Sally Tompkin's insistence on cleanliness was likely the key to this remarkable record although little was known at that time about the cause of infections.

During the entire existence of the hospital, Sally Tompkins refused to accept a salary from the Confederate government for her work there.

After the War, Sally became one of the most beloved citizens of Richmond. She was active in work for the Episcopal Church and attended many functions of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and reunions of the United Confederate Veterans. She was even made an honorary member of Robert E. Lee Camp, UCV.

Sally also received many offers of marriage during this time. Many of these offers came from veterans who had received care from her at the hospital. None of these offers was ever accepted as this would have interfered with her ability to work for and contribute to worthy causes. And contribute she did! Sally contributed so much to the church and to veterans causes that by 1905 she had completely expended her inheritance. She then moved into the Confederate Women's Home in Richmondwhere she was allowed to live free of charge since she had given everything she had for the Cause.

Sally Tompkins died on July 26, 1916 and was buried with full military honors at Christ Church Kingston Parish Cemetery in Mathews County.

For many years Sally Tompkins was referred to as the "Angel of the Confederacy". There is a large stained-glass window at St. James Episcopal Church in Richmond honoring Sally Louisa Tompkins. The beautiful window depicts an angel hovering above and behind a full-length image of Sally and features a Confederate Battle Flag in one corner.

It is an appropriate and well-deserved honor for this Southern woman who was truly an angel.

If you observed carefully at the beginning of this article, you noticed that I used the plural "angels" rather than the singular "angel" in the title. This is because I have chosen to include in this piece another Southern woman that I believe deserves the recognition of being an "angel" to the Confederate Cause.

Ella King Newsom was born in Brandon, Mississippi in 1838. In 1854 she married a wealthy physician and planter who died only a short time after the marriage. He was a wealthy man and left a fortune to Ella.

When the War began in 1861, this wealthy young woman who was wise beyond her years decided to use her money to provide medical care for Confederate soldiers. She first trained in Memphis as a nurse and then took over a hospital in Kentucky as the administrator. Ella's organizational skills were outstandingand she soon put them to good use by recruiting and training nurses, directing the movement of hospitalized troops and routing supplies to where they were most needed.

Her skills were recognized and appreciated by Confederate officials and in subsequent years of the War she established and administrated military hospitals in Nashville, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Corinth (Mississippi). Because of her remarkable administrative abilities and her willingness to help wounded Confederate soldiers, Ella Newsom was called the "Florence Nightingale of the Southern Army ".

After the War she wrote a book titled REMINISCENCES OF WAR TIME which chronicled her experiences. By 1885 , Ells's fortune was all but gone so she had to take employment. Being the administrator that she was, she moved to Washington, D.C. and worked for more than 30 years in administrative capacities with the federal government.

Ella King Newsom died on January 20, 1919.

Sally Tompkins and Ella King Newsom were two wealthy Southern women who refused to stay on the sidelines during the War for Southern Independence. Instead, they used their fortunes and their wealth of ability to make outstanding contributions to the Confederate Cause. By their actions and dedication they earned the admiration and remembrance of the Southern people.

Sally Tompkins and Ella King Newsom were truly "Angels of the Confederacy", but there were so many other Southern women who played critical roles during this time of war and turmoil.

A quote from CONFEDERATE VETERAN magazine, Volume 16 (1908) sums up nicely the character, dedication and contributions of the remarkable women of the South:

" It has well been said that if we seek a lofty ideal and a noble
model on which to shape a well-rounded and perfect
womanhood, combining the pure patriotism, the rugged
virtues, the winning modesty, and the tender graces of
Spartan mother, Roman dame, and Carthaginian maid, we
have but to take a retrospective glance down the corridors
of memory for about four decades to find it in that historic
sisterhood of martyrs and patriots, the women of the

And to think, for so long many of us only thought that Southern women were beautiful!

Bob Hurst is a Southern Patriot who has a strong interest in Southern history and the antebellum architecture of the South. He is Commander of Col. David Lang Camp, SCV, in Tallahassee and 2nd Lt. Commander of the Florida Division, SCV. He can be contacted at or 850-878-7010.

Note: All the articles from the first four years of CONFEDERATE JOURNAL are now available in book form. These can be ordered online. To order Book 1 (2005-2007) go to and to order Book 2 (2008-2009) go to

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Memorial Day farewell to Jefferson Davis

By Calvin E. Johnson, Jr., Speaker, Writer, Author of the Book “When America Stood for God, Family and Country”--looking to get published and member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans.

Monday May 30th is Memorial Day!

Jefferson Davis, born June 3, 1808, served the United States as a soldier, statesmen and Secretary of War. He was also the first and only President of the Confederacy.

On Sunday, May 28, 1893, a few days before "Memorial Day" in New Orleans, a story began that overshadowed all other news events.

Jefferson Davis died in 1889 and was buried at Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans. Four years later, May 27, 1893, his body was removed and taken to Confederate Memorial Hall to lay in state in preparation for the 1,200 mile trip to Richmond for final interment.

At 4:30PM, May 28th, a Memorial service was held for Mr. Davis and a moving address was delivered by Louisiana's Governor Murphy J. Foster as thousands listened. A reverent silence fell among the people as the casket was given to the commitment of veterans from Virginia.

The procession then formed for a slow march to the railroad station on Canal Street. The caisson drawn by four coal black horses came to a halt by the glassed in observation car.

Train No. 69, with Engineer Frank Coffin, waited patiently as the casket was taken to the platform and passed through an open observation car to a catafalque.

Train engine No. 69, of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad slowly pulled out of New Orleans Station at 7:50PM. L and N Railroad later became CSX Railroad.

After a brief stop at Bay Saint Louis, and a slow-down at Pass Christian, where hundreds of people lined the tracks, the Jefferson Davis Funeral Train stopped at Gulfport, Mississippi, near Beauvoir which was the last home of Jefferson Davis. It was here that Davis wrote his book, "The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government."

Uncle Bob Brown, a former servant of the Davis family and a passenger on the train, saw the many flowers that the children had laid on the side of the railroad tracks. Brown was so moved by this beautiful gesture that he wept uncontrollably.

In Mobile, Alabama, the train was met by a thousand mourners and the Alabama Artillery fired a 21-gun salute. Locomotive No. 69 was retired and Locomotive No. 25 was coupled to the train. The new train's Engineer was C.C. Devinney and Warren Robinson was its fireman.

Church bells rang in Montgomery, Alabama when the train pulled into the city at 6:00AM on May 29th. A severe rainstorm delayed the funeral procession to about 8:30AM when a caisson carried the body of Davis to Alabama's state capitol. A procession carried the casket through the portico where Jefferson Davis, in 1861, had taken the oath of office as President of the Confederate States of America.

The casket was placed in front of the bench of the Alabama Supreme Court. Above the right exit was a banner with the word "Monterrey" and above the left exit was a banner with the words “Buena Vista." During the War with Mexico Jefferson Davis was a hero at Monterrey and wounded at Buena Vista.

All businesses and schools closed, and church bells tolled during the procession to and from the capitol. In final tribute, thousands of people of Montgomery, including many ex-soldiers and school children filed by the casket.

At 12:20PM the funeral train departed over the Western Railway of Alabama and Atlanta and West Point Railroad for Atlanta. At West Point, Georgia the train stopped under a beautiful arch of flowers to pick up Georgia's Governor William J. Northen and staff.

At 4:30PM the funeral train pulled into Union Station in Atlanta, Georgia. It is estimated that 20,000 people lined the streets as the funeral procession made their way to the state capitol. Atlanta’s Gate City Guard, which had served as Company F, 1st Georgia (Ramsay’s) during the War Between the States, stood guard over the president.

At 7:00PM the train went north on the Richmond and Danville Railroad, which later became Southern Railway and, today, Norfolk Southern Railroad. The train traveled through Lula, Georgia, Greenville, South Carolina and stopped at the North Carolina capitol at Raleigh.

A brief stop was made in Danville, Virginia where a crowd of people gathered around the train and sang, "Nearer My God To Thee" as city church bells tolled.

Finally, the train reached Richmond, Virginia on Wednesday, May 31, 1893, at 3:00AM. It was Memorial Day. Mrs. Davis met the train and her husband's casket was taken to the Virginia State House.

At 3:00PM, May 31st, the funeral procession started for Hollywood Cemetery.

With Mrs. Jefferson Davis were her daughters, Winnie and Margaret. Six state governors acted as pallbearers. It was estimated that 75,000 people attended this final salute to President Davis. The ceremony concluded with a 21-gun salute and "Taps.

Some Things For Which The South Did Not Fight In The War Between The States

by Henry Tucker Graham , D, D,, L, L, D.


This pamphlet dedicated to the Public Schools of North Carolina by the Anson County Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy, in honor of it's author ,Dr. Henry Tucker Graham, who died January 7, 1951, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. H. G. Bedinger, in Pineville, North Carolina. The author's purpose in preparing this historical treatise was to correct certain prevailing misconceptions concerning the ideals and motives which prompted our Southern leaders to engage our people in a bloody contest of arms with our Northern neighbors, and by a truthful presentation of some generally unknown data., thus to remove any stigma which might unjustly have accrued to their memeory because of a distortion of certain facts surrounding their participation in the War Between the States. The author's interest in this subject was intensified by the fact that his minister father was a personal friend of General “Stonewall” Jackson and often entertained the General and his wife at the manse in Winchester, Va. Dr. Graham, a former president of the Hampden-Sidney College, and for twenty years the beloved pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Florence, South Carolina., was well qualified for this self imposed task, both from the standpoint of scholarship and personal integrity. Because of his burning desire to clear the gallant leader's of his beloved Southland of the unjust charges of petty prejudice and political inconsistency, the arduous task of research and investigation necessary for the preparation of a historical paper of this kind has been, for the author, a labor of love. It is not the purpose or desire of the publishers of this pamphlet to disparage or detract from the character or the courage of our Northern neighbors in the waging of that conflict. But believing that the information contained in this little booklet will serve a legitimate purpose in helping to establish certain important facts of history pertinent to the Southern Cause, in connection with the War Between the States, we heartily recommend this brochure as parallel reading in teaching history in the public schools of our State. Joseph Orlando Bowman Superintendent of Anson County Schools Wadesboro, N. C.

Some Things For Which The South Did Not Fight In The War Between The States

Out of the First World War there came many things of intrest- some tragic , some pathetic, and some comic. I recall one song the Doughboys loved to sing: “I don't what this war's about but you bet by jinks, I'll soon find out.” I speak largely, if not altogether, to those whose kinsmen wore the gray in the War for Southern Independence. In a vague sort of way you probably think they were “right”- but I am wondering how many of you could give a clear-cut statement of the real causes of that great struggle that ended so disastrously for the South, and thus repel the false charges laid against our Fathers and our section? I am especially concerned lest these young people, or their children , should someday be led to think of our gallant Fathers as traitors and rebels. There is grave danger that our school children are learning more about Massachusetts, than about the Carolinas, and hearing more often of northern leaders than of the splendid men who led the Southern hosts alike in peace and war. Not many years ago the High School in an important South Carolina town devoted much time to the celebration of Lincoln's birthday – while Lee, Jackson, Hampton, and George Washington received no mention. You have all heard of Paul Revere's ride made famous by the skillful pen of a New England writer. He rode 7 miles out of Boston and was back in a British dungeon before daybreak. But how many of you have heard of Jack Jouett's sucessful and daring ride froma wayside tavern to Charlottesville to warn Governor Jefferson and the Legislature of the coming of a British squadron bent upon their capture. You have heard of the Boston Tea Party, but how many know of the Wilmington ,North Carolina Tea Party? At Boston they disguised themselves as Indians and under cover of darkness, threw the tea overboard. At Wilmington they did the same thing without disguise in broad daylight. With the utter disregard of the facts they blandly claim that the Republic was founded at Plymouth Rock, while all informed persons know that Plymouth was 13 ½ years behind the times, and when it's Colony was reduced to a handful of half-starved immigrants on the bleak shores of Massachusetts, there was a properous Colony of 2000 people along the shores of the James under the sunlit skies of the South. The fact is that New England has been so busy writing history that it has'nt had time to make it. While the South has been so busy making history, it has'nt had time to write it. Hence to correct this false impression I would talk to you about some of the things for which our Fathers did not fight. 1. They did not fight for a Rebellion. That termed was “coined” by the demagogues to stir the lagging zeal of the North , and to cast discredit on the South. The government itself in publishing the official record of that historic struggle chose this title: “The Official Records of the War of the Rebellion”- a title as false as it is misleading. Our Fathers fought for rights that had never been seriuosly challenged until 1861. Five times before 1861 Massachusettes threatened to secede and there was no talk of an army to force her back into the Union. There was never but one great Rebellion in America, that began in 1775. There was but one great Rebel-that was George Washington. The Government tried to indict Mr. davis for treason, but was forced to abandon the case. They threatened , but did not even dare file charges vs. General Lee. In his first Inaugural ,Mr. Lincoln refers to the seceding States and to the threat of hostilities, but never speaks of rebellion. But by March 1864 he has caught the infection now so prevalent in the North and speaks sharply of rebels and rebellion. 2. They did not fight to “Destroy the United States”. The existence of the U.S.A. was never for a moment impreilled. It's constituency would have been changed and it's boundries altered, but it's destruction was never attempted, or even desired. Whatever the outcome of war the U.S.A. would have still continued to be a great, growing,and powerful Republic. That indeed was one great reason for our failure. Because the existence of the U.S.A. was not even endangered, her bonds and notes could always command a market, whereas the value of Confederate Bonds depended wholly upon the success of the South and so in the last twelve to eighteen months of the war, it was without these “sinews of war' defeat became inevitable- for a nation cannot fight very long without money. Now let us glance at the history of the American Constitution. In May 1787 there met in Independence Hall in Philidelphia ( the same Hall in which the Declaration of Independence had just made eleven years before) the representatives of thirteen free independent Republics to draft a Constitution and so “form a more perfect union” than the loose and ineffective Confederation which then existed. Each State (or Republic) was intensly jealous of it's soverieign rights. Rhode Island soon withdrew because it feared that it's rights as a small state would not be adequately safeguarded. Later it adopted the Constitution as drawn and amended by the Bill of Rights (the first ten amendments) as part of the instrument. William E. Gladstone, the British Statesman, later declared that our Constitution is “the greatest political document ever drawn by a single body in the hsitory of the world”. When the constitution had been adopted by the requiste number of States, the U.S.A. was launched upon the stormy sea of political life with the novel and happy device that populations were represented in the Lower House, while each state, large and small, enjoyed equal representation in the Senate, and thus safeguarded each state vs. the possible tyranny of numbers. The Constitution represented a partnership into which each party entered freely and was equally free to withdraw if it felt that it's best intrests so demanded. Did you ever hear of a political or business partnership that could not be dissolved- once a partner ,always a partner? The right to secede was not written into the Constitution but was tacitly understood by every member of the Convention, and by their constituents back home. Why write into the document that which no one questioned for a moment? But George Mason, astute and farsighted Statesman that he was, saw the danger which that omission may someday provoke, and voiced it in his shrewd comment: “I see the poison beneath the eagle's wing”. Had Daniel Webster been presnt and given voice to the startling veiw later uttered by him- and often quoted since- that the U.S.A. Is an undissovable union of indestructable States he would have been “laughed out of court”, for whoever heard of an “indissoluble partneship”? Or had Abraham Lincoln been present and declared as he later did; “The Union is older than States”, his sanity would have been gravely questioned, for that would have been the exact equivilent of claiming that this building in which we are gathered is older than the bricks of which it is composed. There must have been separate and individual states before there could be a United States. But the word Secession, though assumed by all, was not written into the Contract of Union ,and thereby hangs a tale of “blood, sweat, and tears”. Are you aware in his Inaugural Address (March 4/61) Lincoln made this statement: (Quoting from Repub. Platform 1860) “We denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes”. Yet les than 6 weeks later he called for 75,000 troops to invade the South. Surely, “Consistency, thou are indeed a jewel “rare. Incidentally this drove Virginia (in April) and North Carolina (in May) out of the Union- and these two states furnished half of the total armed forces of the C.S.A. Strangely enough the right to secede was never seriously questioned until after Sumter fell. Wm. Howard Russell, the brilliant correspondent of the London Times , was sent to America early in '61 to give first hand reports on the situation. He landed in Boston early in February, and after some days moved on to New York, Philidelphia, Baltimore and Washington. He talked with leading men everywhere and was surprised to find that no one questioned the right of the South to secede if it so chose. This was true even of the member's of the President's Cabinet. They questioned the wisdom of the step, but no one denied the right of a State to secede if it felt that it's best interests demanded it- and each State must be the judge as to it's own actions in the premises. Moreover the textbook used at West Point when Lee was a student, was Rawle on the Constitution. Rawle a distinguished Philidelphia lawyer, taught the right of secession, and that a citizen's first duty was to his own State. Hence, in withdrawing, Lee was not merely following the principles imbibed with his Mother's milk, but was carrying out the instruction which the Federal Government once had given at it's great War College. Surely this is not rebellion. The late Senator Lodge of Massachusetts says; “When the Constitution was adopted, it is safe to say that there was not a man in the country......who regarded the new system as anything but an experiment entered upon by the states and from which each and every state had the right peacably to withdraw, a right which was very likely to be exercised.” Charles Francis Adams (also of Massachusettes) asks; “To whom was allegiance due in the case of direct conflict between a state and the Federal government?” I do not think the answer admits any doubt at any time anterior to 1825. Nine out of ten men in the Northern States and 99 out of 100 in the Southern States would have said as between the Union and the State, “ULTIMATE ALLEGIANCE WAS DUE TO THE STATE” - cj. Latane's History of the U.S pp.346-7 Perhaps a wordd should be inserted here as to which side was the aggressor in this historic conflict. Who bears the guilt of starting the war? The North has sought to lay this stigma upon the South since we fired the first shot. But the courts (and common sense as well) have decreed that the aggressor is not the one who strikes the first blow, but the one that makes that blow necessary. The ground on which Ft. Sumter stood had been lent to the Federal Government by the State of South Carolina for the erection of a fort to guard it's chief harbor, but when South Carolina withdrew from the Union, the property automatically reverted to the State. A commission was sent to Washington by the C.S.A to make peaceable adjustments of all matters at issue between the two Governments. Chief of those was the evacuation of Ft. Sumter, then manned by Federal troops. Secratery of State Seward, speaking for the U.S.A., gave positive assurance that he was “in favor of peace,” and that “Sumter would be evacuated in less than ten days”. But it later developed that a fleet was being secretly fitted out at New York for the reinforcement of Sumter, and not until this fleet was nearing Charleston was the commission notified of this change of purpose. They at once filed an earnest protest coupled with the warning that the arrival of a hostile fleet before Sumter must be accepted by the South ,and regarded by the world as a declaration of war against the C.S.A. The protest was ignored and the fleet continued on it's fateful way. Then on April 12, 1861, as a defense againt invasion, “the gun was fired whose sound echoed round the world”. Morally and legally, the first blow was struck not at Charleston but when this fleet with hostile intent weighed anchor in the harbor of New York. Hene the guilt of aggression lies at the door of the Federal Government at washington. (See Stephens Hist. Of U.S..,pp.421-429) 3. It is charged that our Fathers fought to maintain slavery. I have attempted to show that the North fought to hold us to a partnership that had become obnoxious to it's Southern memebers. The South fought for it's simple and inalienable right to enter, continue, or withdraw from such partnership as it's interests might dictate. When the attempt was made to force us to remain like all clear thinking, liberty loving men, we fought for our right of choice. To do less would have been cringing and dishonor. But to charge we fought to maintain slavery is to the last degree absurd. The late well informed Miss Milred Rutheford of Athens, Ga.,states that there were 200,000 slaveholders in the Southern armies- about one man in every three. But there were about 315,000 slaveholders in the Northern Armies. Is it not the very essence of absurdity to imply that those thousands in Blue fought to destroy their own property- and especially so, since they could have accomplished the same result with the stroke of a pen and without shedding a drop of blood? Except among a relatively small group of ultra fanatics, enforced aboltion was not thought of. Moreover, the great Confederate Cheiftian had freed his slaves long before the war began, while Grant was a slaveholder whose slaves were not freed until the Constitution had been amended in 1866. He married Miss dent, a daughter of a Southern planter of Missouri ,who gave his daughter 5 slaves which she took with her into the home of Ulysses Grant. Further, Mr. Custis, the father in law of Gen. Lee was a large slave holder. He died in 1857 making Lee his executor. In his will he provided for the liberation of all his slaves five years after his death. Hence late in 1862 Lee paused in the midst of the crushing duties connected with the preparation for a great battle to issue papers of liberation to all the Custis slaves. It may be a slight digression but well worth while to say that Stonewall Jackson was also deeply concerned for the negro and his spiritual welfare .He established a Sunday School in Lexington ,Va. For them. On the night following the strain and stress of First manassas he paused to write a letter to his pastor and enclosed a check for the Negro Sunday School. We are faced, then by the absurd contention that an army led by an Emancipator was fighting to maintain slavery, while an army led by a slave holder was fighting to destroy slavery. Moreover if others had “played hands off” it is more than probable that slavery would eventually have been abolished by voluntary though gradual consent. For many far sighted men with the brilliant President Patton of Princeton believed while legally right, slavery was economically wrong- and more of a burden to the owner than to the enslaved- and urged a policy of gradual abolition. Well known leaders provided for this in their wills. My brilliant, though somewhat eccentric kinsman, John Randolph of Roanoke, so provided in his will and set apart an ample sum to transport his freed slaves to Ohio, and to provide houses and land for them there. They met with a chilly reception and were subjected to grave threats (see Bruce's Randolph ,Vol.II, p.60) Richard Randolph, his brother, also freed his slaves and provided houses and land for them a few miles from Farmville, Va. I have seen this settlement. It is known as Israel Hill . President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamtion has been highly lauded by his admirers as the greatest “Moral Document” ever issued by a human government. Well it was not issued by Government at all, but was the arbitrary act of the President alone- an act without the slightest authority in law. Remember , the slaves were property- so recognized and protected by the Constitution. The president who had sworn to uphold the Constitution had no more right to take the slaves from their owners than he has to take their houses and land without “due process of law”. Morever it is not a moral document at all and does not even claim to be. With pathetic earnestness the President pleads for the kindly judgement of mankind, not because this is a moral act but because it is dictated by “military necessity”. Twice he so declares. He seeks not primarily the freedom of the salves, but to so disrupt the labor system of the South that production would alrgely cease, and riots and disorder would follow, for as Henry W. Grady once declareed “ a 100 lighted torches would have disbanded every Southern Army”. But to the credit of the negro, be it said, not one of them was lighted. The lighted toches were left to “Sherman's Bums” in their march though Georgia and Carolina, and to Sheridan and Hunter in the beautiful and stately valley of the Shenandoah. Let us analyze it a bit and you will find that instead of an Emancipation Proclamtion it is primarily a frank invitation to the South to lay down it's arms. In effect it says “If the States now in arms against the Federal Government do not lay down their arms within 100 days from this date (September 1862) then I will declare the slaves within their borders to be free.” If language means anything that means “if you do lay down your arms, then you may keep your slaves”. It was the outcome of the war, and not the status of the negro that concerned President Lincoln. More than this, all American slaves are not included in the terms of this proclamtion, for he expressly from it's terms all the region around Norfolk and Hampton Roads. New Orleans and all southern Louisana to the gulf for these were by then under the muzzles of Federal gunboats. It does not include in it's terms the District of Columbia or Maryland and other sections broadly included in the term “the South”. Yet there were tens of thousands of slaves in those areas. In other words this Proclamation says in effect if you own slaves in Washington, Baltimore, Norfolk, or New Orleans you may keep them; if you own slaves in Richmond, Raleigh, Columbia or Atlanta I will declare them free ,if you do not come back into the Union. This great “Moral Document” quickly degenerates under searching analysis into a transparent political move. But further the man who penned this Proclamation had declared eighteen months before in the presence of ten thousand heareers gathered in front of the Capitol in washington (I quote): “I have no purchase, directly or indirectly, to interefere with the institution of Slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so”. This is the glaring contradiction of the man who occupied the White House in the crucial days of the 60's. 4. History records no more brilliant fight ever made in defense of home and country and constitutional rights than that of the “men who wore the gray”. Ill fed, ill clothed, unsheltered, and often unshod, and with greatly inferior weapons, except for those captured from time to time from the enemy, yet for four tremdous years they bore the cause of the South on the points of their shiny bayonets. They won victory after victory and held at bay a powerful and determined foe- and ably led. Seven commanders faced Lee in the 2 years and 10 months he led the gallant army of Northern Virginia. In that period his army killed, wonded,and captured 262,000 of the enemy- a number more than twice as great as the total forces under his command during that period. Of the seven officers who opposed him, six were sent to the military “scrap heap”, and the 7th , Grant was defeated more often and more signally than the others but was allowed to hold on, believing, as proved to be true, that the overwhelming weight of numbers and equipment must finally turn the scales. Probably the bloodiest battle in all history, if you consider the numbers engaged and the time involved, was at Cold Harbor, below Richmond, on June 3/64. At daybreak a mighty army of 113,000 leaped it's breastworks and charged towards Lee's lines. The charge lasted 10 minutes- and within 60 minutes the men in blue were back behind their own breastworks- but they had left 12,737 dead, wounded and prisoners behind, while Lee lost only about 500 men. (Cf. Fitzbugh Lee's “General Lee” p. 343) Is it any wonder that when Lord Wolsey was asked to name the 5 greatest generals of the English speaking race he chose Marlborough, Wellington, Washington, Lee and Jackson. And when his questioner said but my Lord you don't include Grant, yet you know Grant defeated Lee. And Worsley replied; “Can you call a General truly great who lost more men in 30 days than his adversary had?” Yes they were never out fought but always outnumbered; never out generalled but simply crushed ny superior and increasing force. Thus the tragic end came at last, and Lee with breaking heart, but with proud head erect and unasahmed, surrendered the mere skeleton of a once great and gallant army at Appomatox- 7892 muskets to the army of perhaps 100,000 men with others within easy call. Furl that banner for 'tis weary. Furl that banner for 'tis weary, Round it's staff 'tis drooping dreary Furl it, fold it, let it rest. Just to remind you of the overwhelming odds against which our Fathers fought, and so place their courage and endurance in an even more brillant light, let me give you a few salient facts. The Confederate Veteran (long published in Nashville, Tenn) states: In the Confederate Army and Navy in 4 years there were 605,000 men. In the Union Army and Navy in4 years there were 2,778,000 men. In the Union Army and Navy in 4 years 680,000 of the above number were “mercenaries ,Negroes, Germans, etc.” When we entered the World War in 1917 our Government was sending across to Germany $83,000 a year in pensions. Of this sum $67,000 was for Civil war pensions paid to aliens hired to subjugate the South. If this sum was still being sent 52 years after Appomatox, how much more must have been sent to these hirelings 10 or 15 years after the struggle ended. One of my former students was palced in charge of teaching the illiterates at Camp Lee in World War 1. At this first meeting a crowded room was asked who is this camp named for! And what did General Lee do? When a lanky mountaineer rose and said; “He's the chap that licked the Huns the other time”. When you consider the facts listed above you realize that there was more truth than error in that ignorant reply. With 75,000 more mercenaries, and many of them Germans, in the opposing force than the total enlistment in all the armies and navy of the South, “Lee was the chap that so often licked the Huns the other time”. I have spoken with the utmost frankness, and I believe I have spoken “by the book”, that you may know assuredly that your Fathers were not traitors or rebels but brave men and true, who know their rights and knowing dared maintain them. For loyalty is not nurtured on untruths. Patriotism is not bred by distorting or supressing the plain facts of history. Our Fathers fought long and gallantly- and lost. We frankly accept the result without one tinge of shame or apology for them, but rather with swelling pride that in our veins flows the blood of gallant men who dared to fight for the right as God gave them to see the right. But for us- their children- there is now but one country- the good old U.S.A. There is but one great National love; the land of the Free and the home of the Brave. Our attitude is expressed in these simple lines whose author I do not recall; Here's to the Blue of the wind swept North As they meet on the fields of France. May the Spirit of Grant be with them all As the Sons of the North advance. And here's to the Gray of the Sun-kissed South As they meet on the fields of France, May the spirit of Lee be with them all As the Sons of the South advance. And here's to the Blue and Gray as one As they meet on the fields of France, May the spirit of God be with them all As the Sons of the Flag advance. 1st Edtion July 1945

Saturday, May 14, 2011

Union Army Code of Conduct

The Civil War, 1861-65

Compiled by Lewis Regenstein



1) Be Humane to civilians. After shelling cities, but before burning them, try to give the surviving women & children time to escape if this does not interfere with your schedule of advance. Allow them to take their most treasured possessions; this will facilitate subsequent requisitioning of valuables.

2) Do not be overly hasty in burning the homes of enemy civilians. Try to take time to first remove the silver, gold, jewelry and other transportable booty of war.

2-b) Civilians should not be wantonly subjected to torture and mock executions unless the purpose is to ascertain the location of hidden valuables.

3) Any officer who permits or commits atrocities against civilians can expect to have his promotion to general – by President Lincoln -- held up until after his court martial is completed (the “ Col. Turchin” rule).

4) Show compassion when occupying enemy cities. Respect the rights of civilians, especially the privacy of women. When forcing a female to have sexual relations with you, separate her from her children first; never molest a woman and her daughter in the same room.

5) If you have to shoot a father or husband trying to protect a woman with whom you are forcibly having sexual relations, try to refrain from openly laughing about it in her presence, as this might cause additional and unnecessary stress. But afterwards, as a morale booster, you may want to prop up the dead body in a comical position for the amusement and entertainment of your comrades,[as Potter's Raiders so effectively did in Sumter, S.C.].

6) Be kind to animals. Shooting enemy livestock, horses, & pets between the eyes provides the quickest & most humane death, unless you are short on ammunition. If you nail a pet dog to a family's front door, first make sure the beast is dead, or at least dying. This display of a beloved pet could be considered gruesome by sensitive individuals, and may result in temporarily upsetting enemy civilians. But remember the importance of boosting the morale of your troops through whatever spontaneous recreational opportunities may arise.

6-b) Take good care of your own draft animals in enemy territory. Churches can effectively be used as stables, and overturned pews make excellent feed troughs, and can later be used for firewood. Churches can also be used as slaughterhouses, and this will help impress the enemy as to the seriousness of our purpose.

7) Restrictions on the shooting of civilians and on firing indiscriminately into crowds of rowdy people do not apply to draft riots and other civil disturbances in New York and other cities in the United States of America, especially if they involve newly-arrived immigrants.

8) Reassure your religiously and morally observant soldiers not to be dismayed by the utter destruction we are inflicting on the South and its civilian population. After the War, we will institute a major “Reconstruction” program.


9) If you have men under your command who are especially skilled at and delight in openly and wantonly killing women & children, immediately have them transferred to the West, where they are needed in our war against the Indians.

9-b) The war-like tribes of brutes and savages in the western U.S. are never to be referred to as “Native Americans” but rather as “Indians” or “Redskins.”

10) There are extra opportunities available for troops who have excelled at warfare against civilians and who are desirous of engaging in post-War genocide in the cause of Freedom and Union. They may be eligible to apply to generals Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, or Custer for extensions of tours of duty and eventual transfer to the Western Theater’s Indian Wars, which these officers will be leading. Experience in killing helpless women and children, without hesitation, preferred.

11) By using Colored Troops (“Buffalo Soldiers”) whenever possible to wipe out the Indians, you can accomplish this objective while avoiding the appearance of “racism” and “imperialism.”


12) Anyone observing a Union soldier engaging secretly in the looting of valuables shall report to his superior officer the name and unit of the perpetrator and the types and number of valuables being taken. This will allow for a proper appraisal, distribution and sharing of the goods.

13) Be ethical when appropriating silver & other valuables from homes. Try to minimize the anguish of the family involved. For example, if silver service is being requisitioned, promise to return it after it is used for that evening’s meal. Remember to treat these valuables with care and respect, and that they must be shared with your commander and other officers.

14) Do not requisition or remove hard-to-transport valuables such as paintings, books, historical documents, family Bibles, furniture, or large antiques. These categories are generally not to be looted, but should be burned instead. In the case of bales of cotton, check with your quartermaster.


15) Treat your Confederate POW’s with respect. After they surrender, shooting just a few prisoners should suffice to intimidate the rest. It may not be necessary, in most circumstances, to shoot them all, even though they are guilty of the capital offense of treason. Such restraint will also aid in the conservation of ammunition.

16) POW’s can be useful in maintaining the morale of your troops under difficult circumstances. Be creative in utilizing such entertainment for your men. Consider the fact that a large number of your Rebel POW’s will be hungry, shoeless, and in tattered uniforms, and many will be young boys and old men. Calling attention to the plight of the Rebels in a scornful and derisive manner can elevate the self-esteem of your men. This may also provide important recreational opportunities for your troops, such as engaging in humiliation and derision of your prisoners and their quaint devotion to “honor” and ‘country.”

17) Every prison administrator and guard should familiarize himself with and closely adhere to the rules governing the care and treatment of POW’s, which should meet or exceed “Point Lookout” standards. For example, it is strictly required that one blanket be issued for every sixteen prisoners. No more than forty prisoners may be placed in Sibley tents designed to hold 16 men.

18) It is our duty to ensure that prisoner deaths from starvation, malnutrition, disease, and shootings not exceed 25%, and incidences of diarrhea and malaria be held to under 50%. If the prison is located on a swamp or shoreline, be alert for possibilities to supplement prisoners’ diet with dead seagulls and rotting fish on the beach. And while infestations of lice and rodents may be considered by some to be a nuisance, it can also be an important source of protein when other nourishment is scarce or unavailable.

19) Proceeds from the sale of food and clothing diverted from POW’s must be properly accounted for and shared with superior officers.

20) Keep in mind that the high incidence of malnutrition and disease among POW’s, while regrettable in some respects, serves to weaken the prisoners, lessen the chances of escape, and ultimately mean fewer mouths to feed.

21) The aforementioned rules on POW’s do not apply to The Indian Wars, as we do not take Indians prisoner. Policy in this regard is governed by General Philip Sheridan’s dictum, “A good Indian is a dead Indian.”


22) When burning cities, libraries, courthouses, hospitals, churches, and other such institutions and structures in the South, always blame retreating Confederates .

23) Do not worry that burning crops & farms will deny food to Union POW's held by the South, whom Union policy prevents from being exchanged for Rebel POW’s. We must think long-term, and be aware that starving Union prisoners will provide us with good propaganda, and after the War, an excuse for war crimes trials.

24) Do not be too eager to attack the enemy; remember that our manpower reserves are virtually unlimited. Wait for your reinforcements & until you outnumber the enemy 5 to 1, or even better, 10 to 1. Consider having your units of Colored Troops lead the charge and take most of the casualties.

25) When shooting retreating U.S. Colored Troops, try to place the blame on the Confederates for such “massacres.”


26) If you or some of your men, or your families, own slaves, do not be concerned about The Emancipation Proclamation, it does not apply to you, only to the States in Rebellion.

26-b) Likewise, President Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address (“Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation…dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal…”) applies only to White Males, not women, Blacks, or, most emphatically, Indians.

27) If your unit is being followed and bothered by liberated slaves, the best way to get rid of this nuisance is to cross a river and burn the bridge. Do not delay your advance by trying to save freed slaves who appear to be drowning while trying to cross the river. They may just be exuberantly enjoying a dip in the water. In any event, our mission is to free the Southern slaves, not feed and take care of them.

28) Do not worry about the temporary state of lawlessness and chaos among freed slaves. President Lincoln has promised to send most of them back to Africa (“Colonization”: “Send them to Liberia, their own native land”), and has assured that those who remain will never be treated as the equal of Whites.

29) The lynching of uncooperative freed slaves is discouraged when done openly, except when helpful to morale or to set an example for others, or when a slave refuses to leave his home and remains loyal to his or her former owners.

30) In order to expedite our War being fought for Human Rights and against the oppression of the Negro, all military units are to be kept strictly segregated, and salaries for U.S. Colored Troops are to be calculated at approximately 50% those of whites.


31) Orders to “Live off the land” when conducting operations in enemy territory shall be liberally interpreted, as virtually unlimited permission to loot, pillage, burn, rape, kill, and destroy.

32) Always remember, we are fighting for freedom and liberty. That is why it is necessary to close any Northern newspaper and jail anyone that opposes our cause; to abolish numerous civil liberties guaranteed by the Constitution, such as the right of Habeus corpus; to shoot antiwar demonstrators in New York; to burn the cities of enemy civilians; to expel “Jews as a class” from conquered territories (General Grant’s general order # 11); and to extirpate the Native Americans from their homelands.

33) Troop morale can often be improved by permitting limited and appropriate interaction with Rebel POW’s. This can also benefit the prisoners by providing opportunities for exercise and play. Some recommended activities (which have been successfully employed at Point Lookout) include: having prisoners kneel and pray for President Lincoln, and carry prison guards around on their backs. However, care must be observed in such interactions as many if not most prisoners suffer from diarrhea, typhoid fever, malaria, and other diseases.

34) In some cases, it has been found that shooting prisoners randomly at night while they sleep has effectively raised morale and self-esteem among guards while increasing discipline among the POW’s.

35) Humor, properly utilized, is an excellent way to boost and maintain morale under stressful circumstances. Try to start off the day by giving your troops a good laugh, such as announcing, at breakfast, “Today, men, we’re going to go out and fight fair, and obey the internationally-accepted rules of warfare.”
35-b) When in enemy territory, it has been found that digging up coffins, splitting them open with an axe, and standing them on end can provide an attentive “audience” for impromptu concerts or other such entertainment events.

36) Since our troops have been indoctrinated with the view that the enemy consists of evil racists and traitors fighting for slavery , be prepared for your men to become confused when they encounter among enemy soldiers large numbers of Native Americans, Jews, Hispanics, Asians, and poor Irish, German, and Italian immigrants, even black Confederates, and almost no owners of slaves -- all of whom think they are fighting for their families and homeland against an invasion from the North.

37) Respond to inquiries from your troops who wonder what they are doing in the South by repeatedly emphasizing that “the War is being fought to end slavery and free the slaves.” If asked about the slaves owned by General Grant's family and other Northerners, deny they exist.

38) If any of your men ask about Rebel claims that the U.S. Constitution permits states to secede from the Union, see # 37 above. Above all, do not permit any copies of the Constitution to be laying around that might be seen or read by your troops.

39) It is strictly forbidden to call The Commander in Chief, even jokingly, a “tyrant,” a “dictator,’ a “warmonger,” “mentally ill,” or more commonly, “an ape.” President Lincoln is rather to be referred to as “The Great Emancipator,” “The Great Conciliator,” “Honest Abe,” or in other such laudatory terms. He is unaware of and not responsible for any atrocities that have occurred (such as the burning of cities), even if he ordered them.

40) President Lincoln is to be portrayed in all writings as “wise”, “kind,” “compassionate,” “a healer,” and pictured whenever possible with his arm around his young son, Tad. Southern leaders, including Robert E. Lee, are to be described as cruel and evil, and fighting to defend not their homeland but slavery, even if they oppose the institution.


To summarize, the honor of the Union soldier and the vindication of our cause, as reflected in this Code of Conduct, are of paramount concern in our waging of this War. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the story of this conflict be properly and accurately recorded.

That is why any erroneous accounts -- those that contradict our version of events -- should be eliminated or discredited, through the burning or other destruction of cities, libraries, homes, courthouses, and any other Confederate repositories of historical documents and records.

History, as we write it, will be our judge.

The Truth – as we tell it – shall prevail.

(These rules of conduct, unwritten until now, were compiled, satirically, based on actual, documented policies, behavior, incidents, and activities undertaken by the United States Army and government during, and for a few years after, The War Between the States. Some were based on the recorded experiences of members of my extended family ( the Moses’ of Georgia and South Carolina, about two to three dozen of whom fought for the Confederacy), who were subjected to death in battle, execution, imprisonment, and occupation of their home by the Yankees.
This document can be reprinted and posted with permission and only in its entirety, as long as the copyright and credit at end are included

Copyright 2003 Lewis Regenstein

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

More on Dodge County Courthouse

NAACP: “The flag must go!”

The flag must go!” That was the message the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) relayed at a rally on the front steps of the Dodge County Courthouse in reference to the Confederate battle flag that flies on the courthouse grounds on Tuesday, May 3 at approximately 5:30 p.m., just before a board of commissioners meeting was to be held.

Read it HERE & comment
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