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Southern Heritage <br>News and Views: January 2011

Saturday, January 29, 2011

Secession, Treason, the Founders, and…the “Goonies”

By Bill Vallante

Every time someone writes an article intimating that the South, in seceding, did indeed have a legal leg to stand on, a howling mob of plastic-patriot goons comes rushing out of the woodwork screaming “TREASON!” In a blatantly transparent show of self-righteousness, they go trampling out the vintage where they think grapes of wrath are stored (it’s actually your fellow countrymen that you’re trampling on, not grapes) to show the world what patriotic Americans they are and how loyal they are to the American government. It is a show that long ago went “over the top,” and indeed, has come to disgust me.

To them, “patriotism” means love of one’s government. Patriotism is not love of one’s government. It is love of one’s people, love of one’s home and love of one’s way of life - all of which constitute love of one’s country. And no, I am not advocating anarchy. Washington, who was the farthest thing from an anarchist that there could be, put it perfectly. “Government is like fire. It is a dangerous servant and a fearsome master.” Like fire you need government to survive, indeed, you cannot be without it. But it is something that needs to be watched and restrained.
It is not meant to be an object of your love.

Some “goonies” claim that the words “perpetual” (in the Articles of Confederation), and “perfect union” (in the Preamble of the Constitution), indicated a mandate that the government was to be permanent, and that those who would challenge that supposed mandate are traitors. Newsflash - when I married my first wife we both thought it the union would be “perfect” and that it would be perpetual. And we both uttered the words, “till death do us part.” Obviously, the union wasn’t “perfect” and it didn’t turn out to be “perpetual.” Most unions, be they business, romantic or political, don’t! It’s been a long time since that marriage ended, but I do not remember either me or my ex-wife declaring a bloody and protracted war on each other.

Those who built the Republic and drafted the Constitution would never have affixed their signatures to any document which mandated a permanent bond to a union, or which gave that union the right to take up arms against any of its fellow countrymen who sought to break that bond. A quick look at the goings on of the Convention of 1787 would tell anyone that. Delegates fought over every nuance, every word and there was, for a time, a fear that several states might not even ratify that document, and that the new “union” would go on without them. The states, which were “sovereign” by the way, were extremely jealous of their sovereignty and looked warily at anything that might involve them in something that might not ultimately be in their best interests, or, that at some future time, might present a threat to their well being.

In fact, 3 of the states specifically included in their ratifications, clauses which clearly said that they could and would resume complete independence at any future time when they might decide that participation in this union was not serving their interests. For the life of me, I don’t remember anyone else jumping up and down telling them that they couldn’t say what they said:

Virginia: “…...the people of Virginia, declare and make known that the powers granted under the Constitution, being derived from the people of the United States may be resumed by them whensoever the same shall be perverted to their injury or oppression and that every power not granted thereby remains with them and at their will…..” [1]

Rhode Island: “We the delegates of the people of Rhode Island and Plantations, duly elected, etc., do declare and make known….that the powers of government may be resumed by the people whenever it shall become necessary to their happiness…..” [2]

New York: “We the delegates of New York…do declare and make known that the powers of government may be reassumed by the people whenever it shall become necessary to their happiness; and that every power, jurisdiction, and right which is not by the said constitution clearly delegated to the Congress of the United States or the department of the government thereof, remains to the people of the several States, or to their respective state governments, to whom they may have granted the same.” [3]

Other states, while not as clear in their wording, all mention “sovereignty” and clearly affirm their rights in that regard, as in the case of Massachusetts: “. . . all powers not expressly delegated by the aforesaid Constitution are reserved to the several states, to be by them exercised. The people of this commonwealth have the sole and exclusive right of governing themselves as a free, sovereign, and independent State, and do, and forever hereafter shall, exercise and enjoy every power, jurisdiction, and right which is not, or may not hereafter be, by them expressly delegated to the United States of America in Congress assembled.” [4] One of the definitions of “sovereign,” by the way, is “independent; self-governing and not ruled by any other state.”

Judging from what the states said in their ratifications, it sure doesn’t sound like any of them had any plans of surrendering the right to go their own way should the need ever arise. More likely, and this is what’s important here, the belief that a state could go its own way was a belief that held sway in this country until a couple of decades before the Civil War, when the thinking of a large part of America began to change, and an alternative point of view began to emerge. But isn’t that always the way of things? Don’t beliefs in this country change over time, and isn’t there always conflict when they do? If so, where pray-tell is the “treason” in all this?

Judah P. Benjamin, U.S. Senator from Louisiana before the war and Confederate Cabinet member during the war laid it out plainly in 1861 when he resigned from the Senate:

“It is said that the right of secession, if conceded, makes our Government a mere rope of sand; that to assert its existence imputes to the framers of the Constitution the folly of planting the seeds of death in that which was designed for perpetual existence. If this imputation were true, sir, it would merely prove that their offspring was not exempt from that mortality which is the common lot of all that is not created by higher than human power. But it is not so, sir. Let facts answer theory. For 2/3 of a century this right has been known by many of the States to be, at all times, within their power. Yet, up to the present period, when its exercise has become indispensable to a people menaced with absolute extermination, there have been but two instances in which it has been even threatened seriously: the first, when Massachusetts led the New England States in an attempt to escape from the dangers of our last war with Great Britain; the second, when the same State proposed to secede on account of the admission of Texas as a new State into the Union.” [5]

A quick look at the early history of the Republic verifies Benjamin’s contention. The New England states seriously contemplated secession in 1814 at the Hartford Convention. And the lower house of the Massachusetts legislature did, in 1844, pass an ordinance of secession in anger over the pending Texas annexation. And I don’t recall the federal government threatening military force in either instance. One thing old Judah forgot to mention was that Massachusetts, in 1803, threatened secession in anger over the Louisiana Purchase. As I recall, President Thomas Jefferson did not call out the militia and threaten to launch an invasion of the Bay State. Instead, he expressed regret over the possibility of them leaving and wished them well if they ultimately chose to go that route.

Sorry to bust your bubble, all you plastic patriots out there, but the early history of the United States clearly shows that while most Americans did not see secession as something positive, that they at least believed it well within a state’s purview.

Historian Kenneth Stampp took note of it as Judah Benjamin did. In “The Imperiled Union,” he points out that it is impossible to say that secession was illegal, at the very least because the language regarding it was vague, and it was never directly addressed in the Constitution or in law until after the Civil War. He pointed out that "the case for state sovereignty and the Constitutional right of secession had flourished for forty years before a comparable case for a perpetual Union had been devised." [6]

A quick look at America’s early history would tell you this.

James Madison, at the Virginia ratification commission of 1788: In response to fears that Virginia, in joining the union, might get in over its head, he said, “If we be dissatisfied with the national government, if we choose to renounce it, this is an additional safeguard to our defense.” [7]

Timothy Pickering of Massachusetts, 1804, in a letter to George Cabot: “I do not believe in the practicability of a long-continued union. A Northern confederacy would unite congenial characters, and present a fairer prospect of public happiness; while the Southern States, having a similarity of habits, might be left to manage their own affairs in their won way. If a separation were to take place, our mutual wants would render a friendly and commercial intercourse inevitable.” [8]

Senator Plumer of New Hampshire – The eastern states must and will dissolve the union and form a separate government of their own; and the sooner they do this, the better. [9]

The Hartford Convention: “…..Whenever it shall appear that the causes are radical and permanent, a separation by equitable arrangement will be preferable to an alliance by constraint among nominal friends, but real enemies. [10]

Senator James Hillhouse, Connecticut, 1803: Echoing Senator Plumer’s statement almost verbatim, he urged that the northeastern states dissolve the union and form a confederation of their own. [11]

Governor Strong, Massachusetts: Prior to the Hartford Convention Strong called a special session and called for secession claiming that the union had failed to protect Massachusetts from invasion. He called for a “separate New England alliance.” [12]

Rep. Josiah Quincy, Massachusetts,1811: Publicly and loudly advocated “dissolution of the union” over the admission of Louisiana into the Union. Still alive and kicking 50 years later, he wholeheartedly supported Lincoln’s decision to invade the South. It seems that one changes one’s tune according to whether or not the condition suits or does not suit them. In 1811, secession suited his interests. In 1861, when someone else was seceding, it did not. [13]

George Washington hoped more than anyone else that this union would indeed be perpetual. In his farewell address he encouraged Americans to work hard toward this end. He advised them that “it is well worth a fair and full experiment.” Take note of the word “experiment.” It is a word that implies truth vs. falsehood, success vs. failure, proof vs. disproof. In no way is it indicative of something that is written in stone. It is, indeed, indicative of the exact opposite. [14]

James Wilson, Constitutional Delegate, used the same word when he said, “...Let the experiment be made; let the system be fairly and candidly tried, before it is determined that it cannot be executed." [15]

Washington’s and Wilson’s words lead into my ultimate point, the ability to differentiate between “hope” and “mandate.” Clearly, both men, along with many of their contemporaries, hoped that the system would work. But their words also indicate that they were unsure of the eventual outcome. The question is not did they hope it would be so, but did they MANDATE that it be so?
I submit that their very words give us the answer “yes” to the first question, and a resounding “no” to the second. I also submit that their actions give us the same answer. They governed this country for 30 years after the Constitution was ratified. To my knowledge, they made no effort to cast the permanency of the union in stone using legislation or constitutional amendments.

William Rawle, whose 1825 book, “A View of the Constitution,” was used at West Point, devotes a chapter to the possibility of a state leaving the Union. He is clear in saying that such a thing does not represent a desirable state of affairs. He does however, maintain that such a thing is within the purview of a state, “It depends on the state itself to retain or abolish the principle of representation, because it depends on itself whether it will continue a member of the Union. To deny this right would be inconsistent with the principle on which all our political systems are founded, which is, that the people have in all cases, a right to determine how they will be governed” [16]

Nearing the end of his life, Thomas Jefferson addressed the same issue. Again, note the difference between “hope” and “mandate.” “Whilst the General Assembly thus declares the rights retained by the States, rights which they have never yielded and which this state will never voluntarily yield, they do not mean to raise the banner of disaffection, or separation from their sister states….. They know and value too highly the blessings of their Union…. They would, indeed, consider such a rupture as among the greatest calamities which could befall them; but not the greatest. There is yet one greater, submission to a government of unlimited powers.” [17]

St. George Tucker, Constitutional Delegate, summed it up perhaps better than anyone. Take careful note that like Jefferson, Tucker would view secession as a calamity. Take note also that he admits that though it would be undesirable, it is nonetheless possible:

"The federal government, then, appears to be the organ through which the united republics communicate with foreign nations, and with each other. Their submission to its operation is voluntary: its councils, its sovereignty is an emanation from theirs, not a flame by which they have been consumed, nor a vortex in which they are swallowed up. Each is still a perfect state, still sovereign, still independent, and still capable, should the occasion require, to resume the exercise of its functions, as such, in the most unlimited extent.”

"But until the time shall arrive when the occasion requires a resumption of the rights of sovereignty by the several states (and far be that period removed when it should happen) the exercise of the rights of sovereignty by the states, individually, is wholly suspended, or discontinued, in the cases before mentioned: nor can that suspension ever be removed, so long as the present constitution remains unchanged, but by the dissolution of the bonds of union. An event which no good citizen can wish, and which no good, or wise administration will ever hazard.” [18]

No, secession does not equal treason. It is not a desirable state of affairs to be sure. But treason it is not! All one needs to do to realize this is to listen to the words of the Founders and read a bit on the history of early America.

But “goonies” are either too lazy to do these things or they are simply too opinionated. All too often, they are driven by the ancient principle of “might makes right.”

“Goonies” are unaware that nearly 500 of those they call traitors (Confederate soldiers) are buried in Arlington National Cemetery, and that they were buried there with the blessings of the very government they struggled so mightily against, for that government recognized them as being American veterans.

“Goonies” have never heard of Public Law 85-425, May 23, 1958, which gave American veteran status to Confederate soldiers.

“Goonies” are unaware that a portrait of Robert E Lee hung on the Oval Office wall when Eisenhower was president, and that Eisenhower urged Americans to honor those on both sides who sacrificed all for what they believed, and who, in doing so, gave us the America that we live in today.

Most “goonies” would call me a liar if I told them that President Harry Truman was a card carrying member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans. No matter. Not being the shy type I have a few choice names for them as well, none of which can be printed here.

Finally, it would appear that the treason-screaming “goonies” are cut from the same mold as one William T. Sherman, that wonderfully patriotic American who uttered these infamous words and who apparently believed as the “goonies” do, that “government” is a wonderful thing that one should be mandated to love, honor, cherish and obey….or else!

“I would banish all minor questions, assert the broad doctrine that as a nation the United States has the right, and also the physical power, to penetrate to every part of our national domain, and that we will do it…that we will remove and destroy every obstacle, if need be, take every life, every acre of land, every particle of property, every thing that to us seems proper; that we will not cease till the end is attained; that all who do not aid us are our enemies, and that we will not account to them for our acts.” [19]

Sherman took every life and every particle of property of every Southerner he could in pursuit of his belief that the government had a mandate for permanency. He penetrated into their homeland and sacked it because he deemed it to be proper. And when he was through subjugating them, he went off and did the same to the Native American.

Maybe I’ll let out a good old fashion “huzzah” for the “gooney” version of patriotism…and after that I’ll go throw up last night’s supper.


1 – “A Southern View of the Invasion of the Southern States And the War of 1861-1865,” By Captain S.A. Ashe, 2nd edition reprint from original 1911 edition, Ruffin Flag Company, Page 27

2 – ibid, Page 29

3 – ibid, Page 29

4 – (Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1780, Article IV)

5 - “The Politics of Dissolution,” by Marshall DeRosa, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick (USA) and London, (UK), Copyright 1998, Page 292

6 – “The Right of Secession,” by Gene H. Kizer, Jr.

7 – “One Nation Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution”
By Robert F. Hawes, Copyright 2006, Published by the Fultus Corporation, page 105

8 – “One Nation Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution” By Robert F. Hawes, Copyright 2006, Published by the Fultus Corporation, Page 232 – (Timothy Pickering on a separate confederation, January 29. 1804, in a letter to George Cabot)

9 – “The Coming of the Glory”, by John S. Tilley, Publisher Bill Coats LTD., Nashville, Tennessee, 2nd printing, 1995, Page 71

10 – “One Nation Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution,” By Robert F. Hawes, Copyright 2006, Published by the Fultus Corporation, Page 199

11 – “Secession, State and Liberty,” David Gordon, Editor, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, (U.S.A. and London (U.K.), Copyright, 1999, 4th Paperback Printing, 2009, Page 135

12 – ibid, Page 148

13 – “One Nation Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution,” By Robert F. Hawes, Copyright 2006, Published by the Fultus Corporation, Page 198

14 – Washington’s Farewell Address 1796

15 – “The American Civil War”, Copyright, 2002, Douglas Harper

16 – “The Southern Side of the Civil War,” by Michael Griffith, Fourth Edition, 2007, all rights reserved.

17 – “One Nation Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution,” By Robert F. Hawes, Copyright 2006, Published by the Fultus Corporation, Page 243

18 – “The American Civil War”, Copyright, 2002, Douglas Harper

19 – “One Nation Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution,” By Robert F. Hawes, Copyright 2006, Published by the Fultus Corporation, Page 162

Wednesday, January 26, 2011


Preservation community pleased with decision by retail giant to drop plans to build a supercenter within historic boundaries of Wilderness battlefield

(Orange, Va.) – In an unexpected development, Walmart announced this morning that it has abandoned plans to pursue a special use permit previously awarded to the retail giant for construction of a supercenter on the Wilderness Battlefield. The decision came as the trial in a legal challenge seeking to overturn the special use permit was scheduled to begin in Orange County circuit court.

“We are pleased with Walmart’s decision to abandon plans to build a supercenter on the Wilderness battlefield,” remarked James Lighthizer, president of the Civil War Trust. “We have long believed that Walmart would ultimately recognize that it is in the best interests of all concerned to move their intended store away from the battlefield. We applaud Walmart officials for putting the interests of historic preservation first. Sam Walton would be proud of this decision.”

The Civil War Trust is part of the Wilderness Battlefield Coalition, an alliance of local residents and national groups seeking to protect the Wilderness battlefield. Lighthizer noted that the Wilderness Battlefield Coalition has sought from the very beginning to work with county officials and Walmart to find an alternative location for the proposed superstore away from the battlefield.

“We stand ready to work with Walmart to put this controversy behind us and protect the battlefield from further encroachment,” Lighthizer stated. “We firmly believe that preservation and progress need not be mutually exclusive, and welcome Walmart as a thoughtful partner in efforts to protect the Wilderness Battlefield.”

In August 2009, the Orange County Board of Supervisors approved a controversial special use permit to allow construction of the Walmart Supercenter and associated commercial development on the Wilderness Battlefield. A wide range of prominent individuals and organizations publicly opposed the store’s location, including more than 250 American historians led by Pulitzer Prize-winners James McPherson and David McCullough. One month after the decision, a group of concerned citizens and the local Friends of Wilderness Battlefield filed a legal challenge to overturn the decision.

The Battle of the Wilderness, fought May 5–6, 1864, was one of the most significant engagements of the American Civil War. Of the 185,000 soldiers who entered combat amid the tangled mass of second-growth trees and scrub in Virginia’s Orange and Spotsylvania counties, some 30,000 became casualties. The Wilderness Battlefield Coalition, composed of Friends of Wilderness Battlefield, Piedmont Environmental Council, Preservation Virginia, National Trust for Historic Preservation, National Parks Conservation Association, and Civil War Trust, seeks to protect this irreplaceable local and national treasure.

The Civil War Trust is the largest nonprofit battlefield preservation organization in the United States. Its mission is to preserve our nation’s endangered Civil War battlefields and to promote appreciation of these hallowed grounds. To date, the Trust has preserved nearly 30,000 acres of battlefield land in 20 states. Learn more at

Monday, January 24, 2011

The Spiritual Cause and Effect of the War to Prevent Southern Independence, part 4

by David Ware

Perhaps no other concept has suffered such a radical deleterious transformation as a result of Lincoln’s War as that of community. The Ante-Bellum agrarian Southern community was a complex connection between human beings and their relationship to their land especially their homeland. All nature and neighbors were included. This is the community that our ancestors lived in. They knew one another. Their fathers knew one another. Their grandfathers, great-grandfathers and great-great grandfathers knew one another.

Today we have the gay community, the black community, the Asian community, the Hispanic community, the retired community, the education community, the homeless community, the poor community, the military community, the medical community, the legal community and all the communities defined by guarded and unguarded subdivisions. The word today is used to separate and divide. Exacerbating the transformation of community is that the Yankee-industrialist-money-oriented culture has created a nation of nomads. People move into various regions of the country to advance careers, because they like the area or because they could sell their house “up North” and move “down South” and live “cheaper.” Additionally, the warfare state started by the Lincoln regime has literally moved millions of people all over the united States in the interest of “national defense.”

Consequently, most people now have no roots in the land or its inhabitants, They believe that the community is complete only because they are in it. They promote the tyrannical forces of planning, zoning, building regulation, confiscatory taxation, fees and other regulation to perpetuate true community. Following in the self-serving hypocrisy leveled at Southern community, the Yankee mentality wants cell phones with no cell towers, electricity with no generating plants, gasoline with no oil refineries, tires with no tire factories and airplanes with no airports. This makes perfect sense to a people that teach that you spend to save, borrow to get out of debt and kill for peace.

This economic structure based on parasitic dependency cannot survive in an environment of true community. This is, of course, one big reason our detractors rail against “the Cause.” Our critics come mainly from academia and the nationalized mass media, which owe their financial existence to promoting the party line that “it was all about slavery.” TM

Destruction of true community is perhaps the most tragic consequence of the events from 1861 to the present. One reason that the Confederate soldier was such a fierce soldier was that he was fighting for his community.

Epitomizing the principle of devotion to his people, Robert E. Lee resigned his commission in the army of the united States. He wrote to his sister: “…..yet in my own person, I had to meet the question whether I should take part against my native state. With all my devotion to the Union and the feeling of loyalty and duty of an American citizen, I have not been able to make up my mind to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home.”

Our blessed ancestors fought to keep this country from turning our the way it has. Against their will, a self-sufficient independent culture has now been supplanted. We now live in crowded cities, riding on the merry-go-round of consumption, obsolescence, and waste. We are incessantly told that our every need and problem can be met by a gaggle of arrogant bureaucrats administering some program of “compassion.” We are a nation of prostitutes wandering in search of a life filled with no work and endless monetary reward. We stare, glassy eyed as government thugs sexually molest two year olds so that they can board a plane. This today is what it means to be an “American.”



Ordinance of Secession

"We, the People of the State of Florida in Convention assembled,
do solemnly ordain, publish and declare: That the State of Florida
hereby withdraws herself from the Confederacy of States existing
under the name of the United States of America, and from the
existing government of said States; and that all political connection
between her and the Government of said States ought to be and
the same is totally annulled, and said union of States dissolved;
and the State of Florida is hereby declared a Sovereign and
Independent Nation; and that all ordinances heretofore adopted
in so far as they create or recognize said Union are rescinded;
and all laws or parts of laws in force in this State, in so far as they
recognize or assent to said Union be and they are hereby repealed."

Done in open Convention, January 10th, A.D. 1861

In early January of 1861, delegates from all over what was then Florida met in Tallahassee at the Old Capitol to consider whether or not the state should declare its independence from the United States (united States). The state legislature had previously voted to hold a statewide election on December 22, 1860 to select the delegates to attend this convention and Governor Madison Starke Perry had issued a proclamation to this effect.

These elected delegates convened for the first time on Thursday, January 3, 1861. At this initial gathering , Colonel John Cooper Pelot of Alachua County was chosen temporary chairman of the group.

Sentiments toward splitting from the Union were strong in the state with both Governor Perry and Governor-elect John Milton being outspoken supporters of secession.

On January 10, 1861 the convention, under the leadership of John McGehee of Madison County who had been elected president of the convention, voted 62 to 7 to withdraw from the Union. Florida was declared to be "a sovereign and independent nation". The following day the delegates held a ceremony on the east steps of the Capitol to sign a formal Ordinance of Secession. Later, on April 13, the Convention ratified the Constitution which had been adopted by the Confederate States of America. By this action Florida, the third state to secede, became a member of the Confederacy.

Besides Judge John McGehee, the convention president, there were a number of interesting individuals in attendance for this momentous occasion. Among these were delegate Joseph Finegan of Nassau County who would later become a Confederate Major General; delegate William George Mackey Davis who financed the 1st Florida Cavalry and would eventually become a Confederate Brigadier General; Edmund Ruffin of South Carolina, a leading " fire-eater", who attended as a visiting dignitary to speak in favor of secession; Francis Rutledge, Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of Florida, who gave the opening and closing prayer of the convention and A.K. Allison, representing Gadsden County, who would later serve as Speaker of the House, Senate President and even Acting Governor on two occasions. Allison, by the way, some four years after the convention would serve with the Gadsden County Home Guard ("The Gadsden Grays") at Natural Bridge in the last significant Confederate victory of the War for Southern Independence.

Now, fast forward 150 years to Saturday, January 8, 2011. A large group of Southern history enthusiasts assembled in the Senate chamber of the Old Capitol to commemorate the actions of the 1861 convention by having a reenactment of that important event in Florida history. The Senate chamber was filled with reenactors portraying members of the 1861 convention and many others in period clothing representing the non-delegates who were in attendance that day in 1861 to watch history in the making.

The participants included members of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, the United Daughters of the Confederacy, the Order of Confederate Rose and Southern history buffs from other historical groups. What made the cast of characters even more appropriate was that the performers came from throughout the state just as had the 1861 participants.

There were character portrayals by modern-day Confederates from Crawfordville, Tampa, Tallahassee, Lake City, Havana, Marianna, Wesley Chapel, Lakeland, Jacksonville, Fort White, Orlando, Bagdad (Florida, that is), DeBary, Archer and Mayo.

Despite limited rehearsal opportunities for the participants because of the wide geographic distribution, the production came off extremely well and the viewing audience was quite impressed. One attendee later sent an email saying that he experienced a strong emotional reaction after the roll call vote was taken and it was announced that the delegates had voted for secession. The entire production was first-class and everyone involved should be commended. From the procuring of period clothing to the production of the written program for the event, every necessary task was accomplished admirably.

While the Confederacy was not big on individual awards (the Confederate Army did not award medals, for instance), there are some individuals who do warrant mention.

Jamey Creel of Havana was chairman of the reenactment committee and the driving force behind the event. From the conception of the convention reenactment to the actual event on January 8, Jamey logged about nine months of constant involvement. I well remember his presentation in Ocala back in May to the assembled General Executive Council of the Florida Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans, at the Division Reunion (state convention).

Kelly Crocker of Tallahassee should be commended for his extensive archival research regarding the events and words spoken by the delegates of the 1861 convention. Wayne Torbert of Tallahassee was instrumental (along with Jamey Creel) in the script writing and editing of the materials used by the participants which allowed for the production to come off flawlessly.

And, finally, Phil Walters and Lunelle Siegel of the Tampa area were there and willing when the call went out for more forces to " ride toward the sound of the guns".

Mention should also be made of the cooperation by the staff of the Historic Old Capitol without whose help the event would not have been possible. A special "shout-out" to Andy Edel in this regard.

Well, this was not the first, nor shall it be the last, commemoration of this sort. There will be similar events all over the South and in other parts of the country as the 150th anniversary (Sesquicentennial) of the great war of 1861-65 is commemorated. In this column last month I mentioned the initial event (as far as we Southerners are concerned) of the Sesquicentennial which took place in Charleston, South Carolina on December 20. I wrote of how some media types, filled with anger and anti-Southern and anti-Confederate hate, had spoken or written negatively of the Charleston event and even any commemoration event by people of the South. (As an aside, one of the most outspoken of these media types, Keith Olbermann, is no longer host of his show. Interesting.)

I am happy to write that the local newspaper, the Tallahassee DEMOCRAT, had two articles in the Sunday edition following the event and neither delved into Confederate muckraking. Bill Cotterell of the Florida Capital Bureau of the paper had a fine piece, long and detailed, about the history of the 1861 convention and of the times. Elizabeth Mack, staff writer for the paper, had a shorter piece about the commemoration event which had no anti-Confederate bias at all. The two articles were placed together in a prime location in the paper and accompanied by three fine photographs by staff photographer Glenn Beil. It was, altogether, very good coverage of the event.

The only negative from the paper was an article by Gerald Ensley that appeared on another day expressing his usual disdain (for the umpteenth time) for anything Confederate. This was to be expected and his opinions should merely be taken for what they are worth. By the way, the "cornerstone" of his article was that anyone who doesn't believe or admit that the whole reason for the War was slavery is a "fool" (his word). Obviously he is unaware of Biblical admonitions against the use of that characterization.

As I mentioned, there are many events planned in many places during the next four years. While the Tallahassee event was going on there was a simultaneous commemoration being held in Ocala. There possibly were more in other parts of Florida that I am unaware of.

There were events held in Mississippi and Alabama during this same time period as Mississippi seceded one day earlier than Florida and Alabama seceded one day later. A major event will be held in Montgomery, Alabama on Saturday, February 19 which will include a Heritage March to the Historic Capitol, a reenactment of the swearing-in ceremony of Jefferson Davis as President of the Confederate States of America, many speeches, a reenactment of the raising of the first Confederate flag and much more. This event is sponsored by the Sons of Confederate Veterans but anyone who has "South in the Heart" should be there.

I'm sure there will be much negative coverage by the left-leaning media of all Confederate commemorations during the next four years. I'm equally sure there will be many commentaries by left-wing pundits during this period misconstruing what our ancestors fought for and what kind of people they were (not to mention what they think of we modern-day Confederates). What these folks don't seem to understand is that there are legions of us, with the number growing continually, who know the truth about history and, especially, about the epic conflict of 1861-65 (actually the conflict has been occuring for over 225 years, the armed part was 1861-65).

A note to these pundits: we are not going away. We are not about to stop honoring our ancestors who fought for independence and self-determination. We are not about to feel shame or guilt and we will continue to endeavor to spead the truth about history. Our ancestors deserve no less. We are Southerners and proud of it. God Bless The South!


Note: Many of you who regularly read this column have inquired about the availability of past CONFEDERATE JOURNAL articles. My daughter and I are in the process of compiling into a book all the articles from the beginning of the column in October 2005 through the December 2007 issue . We are optimistic that we will go to the printer in the very near future, possibly a couple of weeks. Within a few months we hope to repeat the process with another book to include all articles from January 2008 through December 2009. We will have some books for sell on-site at events but if you are interested in ordering on-line please go to Thank you all for reading this column and for your comments over the years.

Bob Hurst is a Southern Patriot with special interests in Confederate history and the antebellum architecture of the South. He is Commander of Col. David Lang Camp, Sons of Confederate Veterans, in Tallahassee and 2nd Lt. Commander of the Florida Division, SCV. He can be contacted at or 850-878-7010.

Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Montgomery Trip

Sons and Daughters of South Carolina

The National organization of the Sons of Confederate Veterans in sponsorship with the Alabama Division, SCV have organized and planned a National sesquicentennial event to honor our proud Southern Heritage. This event will occur on Saturday, February 19th 2011 in Montgomery, Alabama at the State Capitol Building. The event will include a march and procession to the State House grounds by representatives (YOU AND I) of each SCV Division or STATE, beginning with SOUTH CAROLINA followed by the reenactment of the swearing in of Confederate President, Jefferson Davis. You won’t want to miss this historic and cherished moment.

The SOUTH CAROLINA DIVISION, SCV, is reserving 3 buses to transport us to Montgomery, leaving SC on Friday from Summerville/ Charleston, Greenville and Columbia. Seats are limited to about 56 per bus and the cost is $55.00 per person. You will be responsible for making your own hotel reservation.

FIRST THINGS FIRST! – make your bus reservation now!

Contact compatriot VOHN BUSBY at: with the number of seats required – wives and families AND FRIENDS are welcome to join us…this is not limited to SCV ONLY…..just those who LOVE the SOUTH and our HERITAGE.

SECOND – send your check for the cost of bus seats ($55.00 each seat) to:

If you can’t send a check right away, at least reserve your seats and send your check as soon as possible. We need to get the buses reserved immediately.

Ricky Badger, SC Division Adjutant
201 Winding Way
Columbia, SC 29212

Contact VOHN BUSBY at or call at (843) 834-3532

FINALLY – I cannot stress the importance of your attendance at this National Sesquicentennial Event. The world will be watching and taking note to measure our resolve and determination to defend our history and heritage. Our opponents say we haven’t got the strength or courage to come out in great numbers. This is the 150th anniversary of the “Cause for Southern Independence” and most of us will not see the Bicentennial, so this is our chance to be part of history and put our voices and words to ACTION!

Please join me and my wife Donna as we travel to Montgomery, Alabama, departing Friday the 18th of February.

For more information on the event (including uniforms, flags, etc…)


Monday, January 10, 2011


(Harrisburg, Pa.) – Following the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board’s postponement of the decision awarding the state’s remaining Category 3 gaming license, Civil War Preservation Trust (CWPT) president James Lighthizer issued the following statement:

“While I understand and commend the members of the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board for their desire to carefully consider the myriad aspects and implications of the licensing process, I am dismayed that the thousands the thousands of Americans concerned about the potential denigration of the Gettysburg Battlefield will not yet receive closure. It is clear that no other proposal under consideration has generated the same intense level controversy and public outcry as this second attempt to bring casino gambling to Gettysburg.

“We are, however, pleased to note that in public remarks earlier this week, Governor Ed Rendell again reiterated his opposition to the idea that a casino might be built near the battlefield. Although he has no vote in the proceedings, the governor’s attitude clearly reflects that of countless sensible Americans.”

“The Civil War Preservation Trust and its allies will continue to monitor the situation closely. We remain confident that the Board will again take a stand protect the legacy and future of this most hallowed ground.”

Since it was announced last year, the proposal to open Mason-Dixon Gaming Resort a scant half-mile from Gettysburg National Military Park has drawn immense opposition. Tens of thousands signed petitions against the project and nearly 300 prominent historians wrote to the gaming board, urging its rejection, as did the national leadership of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund and the American Legion. Other prominent Americans who lent their name to the campaign to protect Gettysburg include Susan Eisenhower, Emmy-winning filmmaker Ken Burns, two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning author David McCullough, Medal of Honor recipient Paul W. Bucha, renowned composer John Williams and entertainers Matthew Broderick, Stephen Lang and Sam Waterston. In 2005, citing public outcry, the Gaming Board likewise rejected a plan to construct a casino one mile from the edge of the national park.

With 55,000 members, CWPT is the largest nonprofit battlefield preservation organization in the United States, permanently protecting more than 29,000 acres of battlefield land in 20 states. CWPT has permanently protected a total of 703 acres at Gettysburg, including two inholding parcels purchased in 2010 and since conveyed to the National Park Service.The organization’s website is

Help Stop the Gettysburg Casino

More about the Battle of Gettysburg

Thursday, January 06, 2011

Fort Pillow Update

(The Meanderings of a Lay Historian)

By Danny R. Von Kanel

Steve Cole, from Collierville, Tennessee, who has spent most of his 59 years studying military and Civil War history, is trying to compile an accurate record of casualties at the April 12, 1864, battle at Fort Pillow.

He believes the conventional wisdom that 331 defenders died in the attack is not correct at this point in his research since he has only been able to identify 170, including the adding of names from the 2nd United States Colored Light Artillery (2USCLA Colored). This leaves him short 161 names. As for the alleged massacre of 197 black U.S. troops out of 253, Cole says official records say 56 colored troops were wounded or taken prisoner. His research has identified 65 prisoners taken from the black units and 10 wounded blacks who were paroled to the Union transport ship.

Confederate records show 226 were taken away prisoner, Cole’s records show 239. Using Cole’s figures and adding 69 wounded, 20 who were “pick-ups” along the river and 18 names from the miscellaneous units (6 TN, 7 TN, 7KS and Stigall’s Home Guard), 346 survived the conflict. This means that of the 557 Union soldiers officially reported, the maximum numbers who are not accounted for and could be ruled killed in action is 211 (38%) – the others being prisoners of war or wounded.

He cites records from his additional research in the Appendix of “Campaigns of Lieut.-Gen N. B. Forrest”, by Gen Thomas Jordan & John Pryor, 1868 and the Official Records report by Lt.- Col Harris, Adjutant-General to General Hurlbut as a basis to where he started his research.

Through the Congressional Record, pension forms, enlistment papers, state archives, Fort Pillow books, and historic newspapers, Cole has gathered his data to date.

Most of the errors he is finding are in the congressional report related to black troops. He thinks many of the ex-slaves used aliases even when they enlisted and maybe when they were captured. He has no proof. There are some National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) records that will list 3 names for one soldier and they seem to believe that he used all three aliases throughout his “career”. He hoped that he would find the original Roster of Prisoners of War (PW’s) in the Official Records (OR’s). But even if he found that, he thinks the names would conflict with the NARA enlistment records.

Quote: “Since most of the blacks of the 6th Untied States Colored Heavy Artillery (6USCHA)
were illiterate, only a vague picture emerges from their sparse military records.”
(Source “ Like Men of War” by Trudeau.)

The fort, in Henning, Tennessee along the Mississippi River, was constructed in 1862. Fort
Pillow, 40 mi (64 km) north of Memphis, was built by Brigadier General Gideon Johnson Pillow and was used by both sides during the war. With the fall of New Madrid and Island No. 10 to Union forces, Confederate troops evacuated Fort Pillow on June 4, in order to avoid being cut off from the rest of the Confederate Army. Union forces occupied Fort Pillow on June 6, and used it to protect the river approach to Memphis.

In 1864 the fort was manned by 557 soldiers in the 13th Tennessee Calvary (misnamed for the 14th), 6th Heavy US Artillery (Colored), and Company D. 2nd US Light Artillery (Colored) regiments under the command of Major Lionel F. Booth. It defended 1500 soldiers from Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers Division for the purpose of Forrest’s need for horses and supplies and complaints from area sympathizers. By the time Forrest arrived at Fort Pillow at 10:00 A.M., the fort was surrounded.

Deploying sharpshooters, Major Booth was shot and killed. Major Bradford assumed command. At 15:30, Forrest sent word for surrender under a flag of truce. Bradford, wanting an hour to decide but Forrest concerned with reinforcements from the river, gave only twenty minutes. Bradford refused to surrender. Forrest ordered his bugler to sound the charge.

Because of poor fort construction and the positions gained by Forrest’s troops during the truce, the walls were scaled by a devastating assault of southern troops. Expecting help from the New Era gunboat, none came. Running to the bluffs below soldiers surrendered, were shot, or drowned. The whole battle was over in twenty minutes.

What happened from 1600 to dusk is still shrouded in controversy. Northern troops claimed
soldiers were massacred after they surrendered – shot down while showing no mercy – no quarter. The south claimed the fort never surrendered – with its flag still flying and soldiers still firing at them.

Congress convened a Congressional Investigation and concluded it was a massacre. Though
historians recognize this investigation was a propaganda tool and is filled with many
discrepancies and errors, the massacre designation fits due to the number of black soldiers killed compared to white. Forrest was never charged with anything and most historians understand, though he lost control of some of his troops, he was not responsible for the massacre.

Consider other finds by Mr. Cole at

and and

In your opinion, Steve, what is missing in the research related to Fort Pillow?

Were any unarmed civilians killed after the Battle? Especially women? Was this a fabrication of the Yellow press? The artwork shows several women on the scene. My opinion is that all women would have used the truce to flee the area. That would be common practice during war.

What have you found most interesting?

The interesting numbers are the false reports: Lt-Commander Fitch, 8th Dist. Miss. Squadron, NAVY - “I believe the force at Fort Pillow was about 500---200 white and 300 Negros----nearly all of which were either killed or wounded. It is reported that all the negroes were killed and most of the officers.”

Captain of the USS Silver Cloud - “The enemy had buried between 300 and 400.” And again “We found about 70 wounded men in the fort and around it, and buried, I should think, 150 bodies.”

US Congressional Investigation – Testimony of John Nelson a civilian who ran a hotel, dated May 28, 1864.“I also further state, to the best of my knowledge and information, that there were not less than 360 negroes killed and 200 whites.”

Steve Cole’s journey in tracing the outcome and whereabouts of Fort Pillow’s 1864 occupants and attackers are a long and tedious process. As he roams the corridors of official records, a complete understanding is beginning to emerge … and we will be the recipients of knowledge gained about their fate.

Wednesday, January 05, 2011

Robert E. Lee: Remembering An American Legend

By Calvin E. Johnson, Jr., Speaker, Writer, Author of Book “When America Stood for God, Family and Country”—looking to Republish and member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans.

America has always loved her heroes like: Baseball Legend-Babe Ruth, Golf Great-Ben Hogan, Movie Actor-John Wayne and…..

Wednesday, January 19, 2011, is the 204th birthday of General Robert E. Lee.

Young people will get a school holiday in remembrance of Dr. Martin Luther King whose birthday is January 15th. But, will anyone tell them that January 19th is also the birthday of Robert E. Lee?

Booker T. Washington, America’s great Black-American Educator wrote in 1910, “The first white people in America, certainly the first in the South to exhibit their interest in the reaching of the Negro and saving his soul through the medium of the Sunday-school were Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson.”

During Robert E. Lee’s 100th birthday in 1907, Charles Francis Adams, Jr., a former Union Army Commander and grandson of United States President John Quincy Adams, spoke in tribute to Robert E. Lee at Washington and Lee College’s Lee Chapel in Lexington, Virginia. His speech was printed in both Northern and Southern newspapers and is said to had lifted Lee to a renewed respect among the American people.

Robert E. Lee-Stonewall Jackson Day events are planned for Saturday, January 15, 2011, in Lexington, Virginia that includes a Memorial at Lee Chapel featuring Guest Speaker Kenny J. Rowlette with topic: Opposites In Command—The Legendary Partnership of Lee and Jackson. For additional information go to:

And the Georgia Division Sons of Confederate Veterans will sponsor their 24th Annual Robert E. Lee birthday celebration on Saturday, January 22, 2011, in the Legislative Chambers of Georgia’s Old Capitol in Milledgeville, Georgia that will begin with a parade to the Old Capitol at 10:45 AM.

Many more events are planned for Robert E. Lee who was born at “Stratford” in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on January 19, 1807. The winter was cold and fireplaces were little help for Robert's mother, Ann Hill (Carter) Lee.

Ann Lee named her son "Robert Edward" after her two brothers.

Robert E. Lee undoubtedly acquired his love of country from those who had lived during the American Revolution. His father, "Light Horse" Harry, was a hero of the revolution and served as Governor of Virginia and as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Members of his family also signed the Declaration of Independence.

Lee was educated in the schools of Alexandria, Virginia. In 1825, he received an appointment to West Point Military Academy. He graduated in 1829, second in his class and without a single demerit.

Robert E. Lee wed Mary Anna Randolph Curtis in June 1831, two years after his graduation from West Point. Robert and Mary had grown up together. Mary was the daughter of George Washington Parke Curtis, the grandson of Martha Washington and the adopted son of George Washington.

Mary was an only child; therefore, she inherited Arlington House, across the Potomac from Washington, where she and Robert raised seven children.

In 1836, Lee was appointed to first lieutenant. In 1838, with the rank of captain, Lee fought valiantly in the War with Mexico and was wounded at the Battle of Chapultepec.

He was appointed superintendent of West Point in 1852 and is considered one of the best superintendents in that institution's history.

General Winfield Scott offered Robert E. Lee command of the Union Army in 1861, but he refused. He said, “I cannot raise my hand against my birthplace, my home, my children.”

Lee served as adviser to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, and then commanded the legendary Army of Northern Virginia.

After four terrible years of death and destruction, General Robert E. Lee met General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia, and ended their battles.

In the fall of 1865, Lee was offered and accepted the presidency of troubled Washington College in Lexington, Virginia. The school was renamed Washington and Lee in his honor.

Robert E. Lee died at 9:30 on the morning of October 12, 1870, at Washington-Lee College.

He is buried in a chapel on the school grounds with his family and near his favorite horse, Traveller.

President Theodore Roosevelt described General Robert E. Lee as "the very greatest of all the great captains that the English-speaking peoples have brought forth."

Fauquier Heritage Institute presents War Between the States Sesquicentennial Lecture Series

WARRENTON, VA – The 2011 edition of the annual Fauquier Heritage Institute Lectures in American History features distinguished local historians and nationally acclaimed scholars to address a variety of topics of local and national significance pertaining to the momentous 1861-65 War Between the States on the occasion of the 150th Anniversary of the epic struggle. The special Sesquicentennial lecture seminars will take place on four different Saturdays; 22 January, 26 March, 1 October and 12 November; beginning at 8:30 AM in the John Barton Payne Building, located at 2 Courthouse Square, on Main Street, in Old Town Warrenton, Virginia. Admission is free to the public and the lectures are sponsored by the Fauquier County Public Library.

On Saturday, 22 January 2011, the Institute will present its first special retrospective seminar program in the series, “Fauquier During the War Between the States,” presented with special cooperation by the Liberty Heritage Society. The free day-long seminar, with panel discussion, special exhibits, intermissions and a break for lunch, will begin with complimentary refreshments, treats and an Overview at 8:30 AM. Lecture 1 will begin at 9:00 AM by LTC Joseph W. McKinney, USA (Ret.), "Armies on the Move: Cavalry Actions in Fauquier in 1863." Lecture 2 will begin at 10:15 AM by Mr. Donald R. Tharpe, "The War Between the States in Fauquier County." Lecture 3 will begin at 11:15 AM by Mr. James G. Flanagan, "The Rappahannock River: The Line in the Sand." Following the 12:15 PM Lunch Break, Lecture 4 will begin at 1:00 PM by Mr. Richard Deardorff, "Fauquier County on the Eve of War." Lecture 5 will begin at 2:30 PM by Mr. Lon Lacey, Jr., "Small Arms Evolution and Tactics During the War"

The day-long free seminar will provide interested students of history with a unique window into our County history during the War, and to view rarely seen or never before published images pertaining to illustrious Fauquier County and Southern defenders and citizen-soldiers; maps; historic items and original research. The program will culminate with a special presentation which will analyze small arms development and availability during the War; highlighting the type, availability and capability of the small arms carried by the infantry and cavalry soldiers of both sides in conflict, with discussion of the specific impact on the tactics used and the resultant outcome of battles. The analysis will feature historic examples from actual Confederate and Union military units, and other physical exhibits from the period. According to presenter Lacey, “One cannot read alone and thereby truly understand the battles of this period without an understanding of the arms which were available to the soldiers at that time and how those assets were deployed.”

About our guest lecture presenters:

LTC Joseph W. McKinney, USA (Ret.), graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1970, where he received his Infantry commission and saw subsequent service in a variety of command and staff assignments in the United States, Germany and Viet Nam. LTC McKinney also served as a senior investigator for the Department of Defense Inspector General. He is the author of the book, "Brandy Station, June 9, 1863: The Largest Cavalry Battle of the Civil War," and conducts a series of tours of the Brandy Station Battlefield each summer, where he lives on a nearby farm and is considered an authoritative source on the subject. LTC McKinney is a member of the Brandy Station Foundation, and is presently researching the June, 1864 Battle of Trevilian Station.

Mr. Donald R. Tharpe, a Fauquier County, Virginia native, has studied architecture and archaeology in Virginia and abroad in places such as Israel, Jordan, Greece and Turkey. He is currently researching the social, economic, religious, and legal history of Fauquier County. He is a lecturer at the Smithsonian Institution and serves as an advisor to numerous Virginia state and national museums and historical organizations. Mr. Tharpe obtained a B.S. degree in Accounting from Virginia Commonwealth University; he also holds a Masters from the Divinity School of Regent University, and is completing his doctoral program there. He serves on the Board of Directors of the Germanna Foundation and is the Founder of the Liberty Heritage Society. Mr. Tharpe is also completing his book documenting the early settlement along Licking Run in Midland, Virginia.

Mr. James G. Flanagan has been a resident of Fauquier County for over 30 years and is a noted educator who has actively promoted education of our regional War Between the States heritage for three decades. Mr. Flanagan holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in the Biological Sciences and is completing his doctoral program at the University of Maryland. He has received several Institutes in Science teaching opportunities from the National Science Foundation, and is a recently retired teacher in the Prince William County Public Schools and the Governor's School in Stafford. He is the Founder and Past-President of the Fauquier County Civil War Roundtable; and avid researcher and tour guide for the Kelly's Ford Battlefield. A poet and author, Mr. Flanagan is completing his book on Kelly's Ford which will provide an authoritative historiography and analysis of the site. He has addressed many regional heritage organizations and was selected among five regional counties as the 2010 "Teacher of the Year" by the Culpeper Minute Men Chapter, Virginia Society Sons of the American Revolution for his contributions to American history education. Mr. Flanagan is also the Education Coordinator for the Liberty Heritage Society.

Mr. Richard Deardorff is a U.S. Coast Guard veteran and noted educator, historian and Social Studies teacher in the Fauquier County Public Schools with over 35 years experience. Mr. Deardorff currently teaches AP/DE U.S. Government and American Civil War History classes at Kettle Run High School, where he has received special recognition for his teaching, volunteer community service and heritage preservation efforts. Mr. Deardorff's interest in the War Between the States dates back to the Centennial observances a half-century ago, and he currently serves as a tour guide for the Brandy Station Foundation and the Liberty Heritage Society Museum. He is a member of the Longstreet Society, the Civil War Preservation Trust and the Center for Civil War Photography. Mr. Deardorff also conducts tours of Old Town Warrenton, where he promotes local heritage education in his public outreach efforts.

Mr. Lon Lacey, Jr., is a retired FBI Special Agent and served the Bureau in a distinguished career as Bank Robbery Coordinator; Field Supervisor; Firearms and Legal Instructor; SWAT Team Leader; FBI Headquarters Supervisor in Washington, D.C.; FBI Inspector; Assistant Agent in Charge in the San Antonio Division; Section Chief at the FBI Academy, Quantico, Virginia; and Special Agent in Charge for the State of Connecticut. He also served as a tenured Instructor and Department Coordinator for the Public Service and Occupation Education Department; Criminal Justice Department; and the Victoria College Regional Police Training Academy in Texas. Mr. Lacey is a veteran of the U.S. Marine Corps, where he served as Sergeant for six years. His education includes a B.A. in History from the University of Texas (1958); and a J.D. from the University of Texas School of Law (1964), whereupon he was admitted to the Texas State Bar. Mr. Lacey is a Quantico Chapter member of the Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI, and currently serves as Color Guard Commander for the Culpeper Minute Men Chapter, Virginia Society Sons of the American Revolution. He is a 35-year veteran of the North-South Skirmish Association, an organization which preserves the history, firearms and artifacts of the War Between the States era. He has won numerous top awards for his competitive shooting.

The Fauquier Heritage Institute was created to promote the study and love of Virginia and American history. To that end, the Institute hosts a yearly series of public lectures that seek to promote knowledge, understanding and appreciation of our local, regional and national history.

Additional program and Guest Lecturer details for each seminar will be posted via the Fauquier County Library web site, in addition to local and national papers throughout the year. The Fauquier Heritage Institute welcomes and encourages all volunteers to aid our special events programs and lecture series in a variety of capacities. Contact Program Chair, Mr. Gar Schulin at 540-349-5864; for additional information.
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